西安市长安区皂河滨水廊道规划

缘起:黑臭河的污名

Background: the stigma of the black-odorous river

皂河,在西汉《上林赋》中为“八水绕长安”中的“八水”之一。后因潏河改道使其成为“无源之河”,在“八水”中的地位也由潏河取代,皂河便承担起了西安南郊、西郊、北郊的排污及排洪职责。长期的工业废水和生活污水排放,使得皂河水质逐渐恶化,河流生态系统也受到了极大破坏。同时随着城市的开发建设,城区内的皂河逐渐被绿化带、城市道路、建构筑物等所覆盖,成为一条地下暗河。河道淤积严重,黑臭现象突出。

Zao River is one of the “Eight Rivers of Chang’an” described in Chinese historical literature. After Jue River diverted, Zao River became a river without a source and the status in the “Eight Rivers” was replaced by Jue River. In that case, Zao River assumed the responsibility of sewage and flood discharge in the southern, western and northern suburbs of Xi’an. The long-term discharge of industrial wastewater and domestic sewage has gradually deteriorated the water quality of Zao River, and the river ecosystem has also been greatly damaged. At the same time, with the development and construction of the city, the urban area of Zao River is gradually covered by urban roads, road green belts, buildings, etc., becoming an underground river. The river is heavily silted, and the pollution is prominent.


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▲局部鸟瞰效果,Partial bird’s eye view renderings ©中国电建集团西北勘测设计研究院有限公司


2018年11月,中央生态环境保护督察组指出“西安皂河黑臭水体整治一盖了之,长安段截污管道建设敷衍应对”等问题。2019年3月,《皂河三年专项整治计划实施方案(2018-2020年)》正式印发,对皂河进行系统性全流域综合整治。

In November 2018, the Central Ecological and Environmental Protection Supervision Group pointed out that the black-odorous water of Zao River has been covered up and the construction of the sewage removal pipeline in Chang’an section has been perfunctory response. In March 2019, the Implementation Plan of Zao River Three-Year Special Regulation Plan (2018-2020) was officially issued, which aims to carry out systematic and comprehensive improvement of Zao River.


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▲项目总体概览,Project overview ©中国电建集团西北勘测设计研究院有限公司


现状与挑战:城市与河流如何相融相生

Site and Challenges: How do cities and rivers blend together

根据存在问题及现状特征将皂河长安段分为三部分:东南部的上游段靠近源头,周边多为村镇,河道现状为干涸的硬质排涝渠,两岸植被生长凌乱,景观单一;城区段位于老城区,河道多被城市建设侵占,且道路狭窄,公共活动空间缺失;西北部的下游段由于排污导致水体黑臭现象严重,已经影响到了周边居民的正常生活,“一盖了之”的消极处理手段无法从根本上解决污染问题,也已经无法隐藏问题的严重性。这条见证了西安古都朝代更替的古老河流,该怎样适应现代化城市的发展,又将如何重新融入人们的生活?

According to the existing problems and site characteristics, the Chang’an section of Zao River is divided into three parts. The upstream section is close to the source, and the surrounding areas are mostly villages and towns. The current situation of the river is a dry hard drainage canal, with disorderly growth of vegetation on both sides and a single landscape. The urban section is in the old urban district where the river has been encroached upon by urban construction, the road is narrow and there is no space for public activities. In the downstream section, the pollution of the water is severe due to sewage discharge, which has affected the surrounding residents. The negative treatment method can no longer hide the seriousness of the problem. How should this ancient river that has witnessed the dynasty change of Xi’an adapt to the development of a modern city and reintegrate into people’s lives?


▲改造前后环境对比,contrast of the environment before and after renovation ©中国电建集团西北勘测设计研究院有限公司


设计目标与策略:从城市排污河到生态景观河,构建城市综合性的蓝绿基础设施

Objectives and Design Strategies: From urban sewage river to ecological landscape river, building a comprehensive urban blue-green infrastructure

本方案将统筹规划河流廊道系统、绿道系统、植物生境系统,均衡布局公园绿地,通过生态护岸改造、拓展绿色空间,建设城市生态廊道、生态体验区,形成城市绿色生态网络。塑造一处集生态涵养、文化传承、亲近自然、漫步休闲为一体的CEAD(中央生态活力区),创造一个长安区城市未来发展的新地标、新名牌。

This plan will make overall plans for the river corridor system, greenway system and plant habitat system, balance the layout of parks and green spaces. Expand green space and build urban ecological corridors and ecological experience areas through revetment renovation, urban greening and other measures, forming the urban green ecological network. Create a CEAD (Central Ecological Active District) that integrates ecological conservation, cultural heritage, closeness to nature, strolling and leisure, and create a new landmark for the future development of Chang’an District.


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▲改造后的空间概览,不仅是一条河流廊道,更是连接城市中人与人的纽带,让人们在此休憩交谈、休闲健身、家庭交流,在这里重建社区温度 Overall view of the space after renovation. It is not only a river corridor, but also a link between people in the city. Allowing people to have a rest and talk, enjoy leisure and fitness, communicate with family, and rebuild the community temperature here. ©中国电建集团西北勘测设计研究院有限公司


下游段周边用地多为住宅小区、学校。该段通过揭除盖板、拆除原有浆砌石硬质护岸,将河道整体拓宽,打造多种生态复式驳岸,同时结合多层台阶、戏水广场、水中剧场的设计,打造可参与互动的水生态活力区。

The surrounding land of the downstream section is mostly residential communities and schools. The main renovation measures for this section are to remove the cover plate, dismantle the original revetment of masonry, widen the river channel and transform it into a variety of ecological duplex sections. Combined with the design of multi-layer steps, water playing squares and stages, make it being a dynamic area where citizens can participate and interact.


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▲下游段改造前后示意图,Diagram before and after renovation ©中国电建集团西北勘测设计研究院有限公司

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▲护岸采用流畅的曲线台阶消化高差,让原本僵硬笔直的岸线变得富有韵律感,Revetment with smooth curves ©中国电建集团西北勘测设计研究院有限公司

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▲自然草坡亲水空间,natural grass slope space near the river ©中国电建集团西北勘测设计研究院有限公司

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▲休闲健身道,the road for exercising ©中国电建集团西北勘测设计研究院有限公司

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▲戏水广场,waterside recreation area ©中国电建集团西北勘测设计研究院有限公司


为满足家庭亲子活动的需求,通过百米绿带、亲水活动区、儿童主题活动区的规划设计为周边社区提供户外家庭休闲、互动交流的空间,让高楼林立的城市中多一处视野开阔、景观优美、设施完备的城市公共空间。

In order to meet the needs of parent-child activities, the planning and design of the 100-meter green belt, water area, and children playground provide the surrounding communities with outdoor family leisure and interactive communication spaces, which also provide an urban public space with broad vision, beautiful landscape and complete facilities.


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▲户外家庭休闲娱乐的公共空间,outdoor public space for family leisure ©中国电建集团西北勘测设计研究院有限公司


结语 

Conclusion

皂河长安段河道综合治理是经多专业协同合作最终提出的系统解决方案,通过重建河流廊道生态系统构建多层次服务城市市民的蓝绿基础设施。本案通过景观设计统筹规划,将雨洪资源再利用、生态防洪技术、水生态修复技术等相融合,将皂河长安段建设成为集生态治理、科普教育、休闲观光于一体的水生态活力示范区,改善区域人居环境,助力长安区的发展。

The comprehensive river regulation of Zao River Chang’an section is a systematic solution that put forward by multi-professional collaboration and cooperation. It is to build a multi-level blue-green infrastructure serving urban citizens through the reconstruction of the river corridor ecosystem. Through the overall planning of landscape design, this project integrates the reuse of rain and flood resources, ecological flood control technology, water ecological restoration technology, etc., and builds the Zao River Chang’an section into a demonstration area integrating ecological management, science education, leisure and tourism, which will improve the regional human settlements and help the development of Chang’an District.


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▲夜幕降临也丝毫没有降低儿童活动区的人气,The nightfall did not reduce The popularity of the children’s playground ©中国电建集团西北勘测设计研究院有限公司

▲通过丰富的夜景亮化设计,突出流畅的河岸线,为市民夜间休闲活动提供多样的公共空间 Through the night scene lighting, the smooth riverbank line is highlighted. It can also provide a variety of public space for citizens’ leisure activities at night. ©中国电建集团西北勘测设计研究院有限公司

▲舒适的滨河空间,the comfortable riverside space ©中国电建集团西北勘测设计研究院有限公司

▲夜幕下的河流成为市民傍晚休闲健身的好去处,the riverside becoming the destination for local people to work out in the dusk ©中国电建集团西北勘测设计研究院有限公司

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▲皂河长安段综合治理总平面图,Master plan ©中国电建集团西北勘测设计研究院有限公司

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